Windows has no functionality to prevent a file from getting renamed or deleted by default, however there are also very less tools that can really do that.
If in any case you want to disable file renaming and also disable it from getting deleted accidentally or deliberately, then here is a tool that can allow you to prevent file renaming and can also lock a file so that it can not be deleted.
M File Anti-copy mentioned yesterday, does not only disable a file from getting copied or moved but also protect file from getting renamed or deleted.
What you need to do is just install this software and click on “Enable or Disable Protection” button and add the files you want to Anti- Rename or Anti- Delete.
The software also provides password protection and all this is completely free.